Several articles about the tonguing syllables discussed in seventeenth-century French instructional books were posted to this site in the early 1980s. Owing to the progress in our understanding of performance practices, these refutations of one or another theory are now outdated.
The following articles will therefore not be re-published to this reworked site.
The French syllables tu and ru: why “veddy” is not a desirable substitute for “ru” (http://ranumspanat.com/html%20pages/tu_and_ru.html)
Some further thoughts about the images of the vowels in French tonguing syllables (http://ranumspanat.com/html%20pages/laurin.html)
Patricia M. Ranum, "A Fresh Look at French Wind Articulations," American Recorder, 33 (1992), pp. 9-16 and 39.
Patricia M. Ranum, "Tu-Ru-Tu and Tu-Ru-Tu-Tu: Toward an Understanding of Hotteterre's Tonguing Syllables," in David Lasocki, ed., The Recorder in the Seventeenth Century (Utrecht: STIMU, 1995), pp. 217-254.